ECBATANA (Old Persian :  HAGGMATANA literally “a place of gathering”. ) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.  It is believed that Ecbatana is in TAPPE – ye HAGGMATANA ) near HAMADAN.

Excavations at KABOUTAR AHANG have revealed stone-age tools and pottery from 1400 – 1200 BC.  According to Herodotus, Ecbatana was chosen as the Medes’ capital in the late 8th century BC by Deioces.  Under the Persian Kings, Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand (11,716ft) , became a summer residence.  Later, it became the capital of the Parthian Kings, at which time it became their main mint producing drachm, tetra – drachm and assorted bronze denominations.  It is also mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Ezra 6: 1-3) under the name ACHMETHA.  In 330 BC, Ecbatana was the site of the murder of the Macedonian General PARMENION by order of Alexander the Great.


The city was surrounded by seven concentric walls.  Itself at an elevation of 6,158ft, the city dominates the wide, fertile plain of the upper QAREH SU River.  A little to the east of Ecbatana is the MUSALLA ( a natural mound ) the debris of which includes the remains of ancient Ecbatana.  The modern city is built partly on this mound.

Ecbatana rug

Modern development is modest.  In summer the pleasant climate makes Ecbatana a resort, but the winters are long and severe.  The EKBATAN DAM (formerly SHAHNAZ DAM ) provides water for the city.  Grain and fruit are grown in abundance, and Ecbatana is an important trade centre on the main Tehran – Baghdad highway.  In the Iranian rug trade, Ecbatana rugs rank second to KERMAN rugs.



ARISTOTLE (384-322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and scientist,born in Stagirus, Northern Greece.  His father died when Aristotle was a child, and Proxenus of Attarneus, became his guardian.  At 18, he joined Plato’s Academy, in Athens, and remained there till the age of 37.
His writings cover many subjects –physics, biology, zoology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, poetry, music, theatre, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government, and constitute the 1st comprehensive system of WESTERN PHILOSOPHY.  Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens, and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great between 356-323 BCE.  According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Aristotle was he 1st genuine scientist in history…..(and) every scientist is in his debt.”
aristotle_quoteTeaching Alexander the Great, gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies.  He established a library, in the LYCEUM, which added in the production of many of his 100 books.  Aristotle believed that all people’s concepts and all their knowledge was, ultimately, based on PERCEPTION.  Aristotle ‘views’ on NATURAL SCIENCES represent he ground-work underlying many of his works.
In metaphysics, ARISTOTELINISM, profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought, in the Middle Ages, and continues to influence Christian Theology.  Aristotle was well-known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as “The First Teacher”.
Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues ————-Cicero described his literary style as a “RIVER of GOLD” ——and it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived.
(1) All human actions, one or more of these, have 7 causes –chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reason, passion, desire.
(2) Those who educate children well, are more to be honoured than they who produce them; for these only gave them life, those the ART OF LIVING WELL.

Walk upright


Walk upright, with calm, dignity and joy as though you were an emperor.  Place your foot on the earth, the way an emperor places his seal on a royal decree.  A decree can bring happiness or misery.  Your steps can do the same.  If your steps are peaceful, the world will have peace.  Moments of glory are not achieved by staying in your comfort zone.  moments of glory occur when we step outside ourselves and fear shakes hands with freedom.

When you discover your essential nature and know who you really are, in that knowing itself is the ability to fulfil any dream you have, because you are the eternal possibility, the immeasurable potential of all that was, is and will be.  In the midst of uncertainty, keep determination in your thoughts and it will become your guiding light in front of you.  Those whose thoughts are filled with determination, will find everything to be possible.  It is the characteristic excellence of the strong man that e can bring momentous issues to the fore and make a decision about them.  The weak are always forced to decide between alternatives they have not chosen themselves.   Regardless of how you feel inside, always try to look a winner.  Even if you are behind, a sustained look of control and confidence can give you a mental edge that results in victory.